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Familiarizing yourself with the nutrients that fruit and vegetables deliver is imperative for optimal health if you follow a plant-based diet.  Please see the chart below which lists certain vitamins and minerals, how they work in the body, quantities recommended, and their plant-based resources.
Some of the vitamins and minerals, and therefore their resources, that I pay particular attention to (from an athletic and nutrition stand point) are:
Vitamin B12 (I take a supplement): for energy, cognitive abilities, nervous system health, smooth muscle movement
Vitamin D (I take a supplement): for calcium absorption, muscle contraction
Calcium: for bone strengthening and building, muscle contraction
Iodine: (I use iodized salt): for thyroid health
Iron: for red blood cell health and oxygen transportation, to prevent anemia
Magnesium: for regulation of biochemical reactions, muscle contraction
Potassium: for maintaining fluids in body, heart health, muscle contraction
Zinc: for immune system health, helps make protein and DNA, heals wounds, helps with taste and smell

* information based from the Institute of Medicine

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